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         Haiti History:     more books (101)
  1. Haiti (The Caribbean Today) by Bob Temple, 2009-01-02
  2. Haiti: The Duvaliers & Their Legacy by Elizabeth Abbott, 1991-01-15
  3. Taking Haiti: Military Occupation and the Culture of U.S. Imperialism, 1915-1940 by Mary A. Renda, 2001-06-18
  4. The Catholic Church in Haiti: Political and Social Change by Anne Greene, 1993-12
  5. Red and Black in Haiti: Radicalism, Conflict, and Political Change, 1934-1957 by Matthew J. Smith, 2009-05-01
  6. Haiti In Pictures (Visual Geography. Second Series) by Margaret J. Goldstein, 2005-06-30
  7. Rainy Season: Haiti-Then and Now by Amy Wilentz, 2010-04-13
  8. The United States Occupation of Haiti, 1915-1934 by Hans R. Schmidt, 1995-03-01
  9. Haiti: State Against Nation: The Origins and Legacy of Duvalierism by Michel-Rolph Trouillot, 1989-10-01
  10. The Haitian Creole Language: History, Structure, Use, and Education
  11. Haiti Renewed: Political and Economic Prospects
  12. Revolutionary Freedoms: A History of Survival, Strength, by Cécile Accilien, Jessica Adams, et all 2006-05-25
  13. Haiti's Predatory Republic: The Unending Transition to Democracy by Robert Fatton, 2002-04
  14. Getting Haiti Right This Time: The U.S. and the Coup (Read and Reist)

21. Haiti History
Columbus first discovered the island of Hispaniola, of which Haiti comprises thewestern third, in 1492. Haiti's troubles are by no means over, however.
back Columbus first discovered the island of Hispaniola, of which Haiti comprises the western third, in 1492. Although Columbus left some settlers there, they all perished within a year. In the 17th century, the Spanish gave possession of Haiti, then called Saint Dominigue, to the French, who turned it into a most profitable colony. From there, they exported coffee, sugar and indigo. Following a 12-year slave uprising led by Toussaint l'Ouverture, Haiti seceded from neighboring Dominican Republic in 1804 and became the world's first black republic. Throughout the rest of the 19th century, Haiti experienced a great deal of political strife. The country was divided between the blacks and the mulattos, who held political power. Meanwhile, a succession of dictators, many tyrannical, did nothing to improve the situation. In 1915, the United States sent in troops in an attempt to stabilize the country's long-turbulent situation. The U.S. military presence did not leave until 1934. In 1957, Dr. Francis Duvalier, a country physician, was elected to power. "Papa Doc," as he was known, became one of Haiti's most ruthless dictators, commanding the country through his secret police, the tontons macoute (the Creole phrase for "bogeymen"). Jailing and murdering political dissidents were common practices of Papa Doc's private militia. When Duvalier died in 1971, he turned leadership over to his son, Jean Claude. For the next 15 years, "Baby Doc" ruled Haiti with the same tyrannical hand his father had. Despite the ever-present force of the tontons macoute, political opposition mounted until in 1986, a revolt known as Operation Deschoukay forced Baby Doc out of the country. Several military governments were put in place until in 1990, a United Nations-supervised presidential election brought Jean-Bertrand Aristide and civilian rule to power in Haiti. Merely nine months later, army chief Brigadier-General Raoul Cedras staged a military coup and seized power; Aristide was exiled. Despite the attempted intervention of various international organizations, economic sanctions and diplomatic pressure, Cedras continued to rule Haiti. Then in June 1992, he established a "government of national consensus," with Marc Bazin as the president; Bazin was one of the presidential opponents defeated by Aristide. But the international recognition essential to Haiti's survival was still not forthcoming under the new government. A year later, Cedras made a deal with Aristide, allowing him to return to Haiti and resume the presidency. Soon thereafter, the infamous FRAPH (Front Revolutionnaire pour l'Avancement et le Progrès d'Haiti) emerged. The militant group was an offshoot of the Duvalier tontons and was led by men largely responsible for Haiti's political violence. In order to force a resolution of these constant and dangerous political struggles, the United Nations extended sanctions to all international trade other than food and medicine. Finally, in September 1994, a deal was signed that restored Aristide to full power and called for the dissolution of the military regime. Peace-keeping troops from the United States and the United Nations arrived to ensure a smooth transition. In December 1995, at the end of Aristide's term, his associate, René Préval, won Haiti's presidential election. Haiti's troubles are by no means over, however. Despite millions of dollars in foreign aid, its economy languishes. It is hoped that through the creation of a successful tourism industry, Haiti will be able to leave some of its problems behind. back

haiti history. Haiti History. ( about) (45 titles); Haiti History 1804 ( about) (9 titles); Haiti History 1804-1844. HISTORY

23. Haiti
1, Caribbean Supersite's haiti history. Category Society History By Region Caribbean Haiti http//
Caribbean Supersite's Haiti History A summary of the history of this island.
Category: Society > History > By Region > Caribbean > Haiti
Early History of Haiti
Haiti is the first republic in the world to have been led by a person of African descent: Jean-Jaques Dessalines. A summary of the formation of Haiti as a Republic.
Category: Society > History > By Region > Caribbean > Haiti
Haiti - A Country Study
Prepared by the Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress in their Area Handbook Series.
Category: Society > History > By Region > Caribbean > Haiti Haiti-Santo Domingo Independence Society History of the organization formed in 1921 to end the U.S. military occupations of Haiti and Santo Domingo. Includes essays by James Weldon Johnson and others involved in the movement. Category: Society > History > By Region > Caribbean > Haiti

24. Haiti
Directory. Adoption Sites, Adoption Community, Adoption Shop, AdoptionReunion, International Adoption. haiti history. Historical Background

25. Haiti: History
Click to go to text menu. You are here History, Haiti. When Quisqueya,as the local population named it, was «discovered» by Christopher

26. Haiti History Links
. haiti history Links. Home. History of Crudem. Location. Haiti News. History Links.Photo Tour. Sign Guestbook. View Guestbook. Send EMail. Donate Medical Supplies.
Haiti History Links
Home History of Crudem Location Haiti News ...
  • Webmaster: Rick Hermann E-mail:
  • 27. Liberalism Haiti History (in MARION)
    Liberalism haiti history. Heading Liberalismhaiti history. Back to Start.

    28. World History Archives: The History Of The Republic Of Haiti
    Index of links to articles in the World history Archives.Category Society history By Region Caribbean haiti...... Documents for the retrospective history of the Republic of haiti Documents for thecontemporary political history of the Republic of haiti Documents for the
    Hartford Web Publishing is not the author of the documents in World History Archives
    Jean Gourgua, flowers History in general of the Caribbean Documents for the retrospective history of the Republic of Haiti
    Documents for the contemporary political history of the Republic of Haiti
    Documents for the economic history of the Republic of Haiti
    Documents for the working-class history of the Republic of Haiti
    Documents for the social history of the Republic of Haiti
    Documents for the culture history of the Republic of Haiti
    Documents for the media and telecommunications of the Republic of Haiti
    Resources for the study of the Republic of Haiti

    29. Haiti MC Page
    Purdue University's Multicultural Homepage presents this brief history of haiti that covers the 15th through the 19th centuries. The Early history of Haïti. Haïti is the first republic in the world to have been led by a person of African descent
    The TEXT
    Haiti: The Black Republic by S. Rodman, 4th ed., 1978, Devin-Adair, Co.
    Haiti in Pictures by K. Weddle, (c) 1989, Lerner Pub. Co.
    Illustrations come from the book of Hermann and Montas and should not be reproduced. The island on which Haiti is located (Hispaniola) had been inhabited by various cultures before the arrival of Columbus. The first known settlers of the island were the Ciboneys who migrated from what is currently the North American continent in 450 A.D. These people were followed in 900 A.D by the Tainos (good people) who were members of the Arawak nation and had origins in the Amazon valley. The Tainos were a peaceful agricultural people who lived in large villages (Caciques) and cultivated corn, weaved cotton, worked in pottery, carved furniture, weaved baskets and invented (?) the hammock. These villages were also peopled by a small number of friendly Caribs who had emigrated from what is today South America. The Tainos called the island Ayiti which meant `land of mountains'. Most of the Carib nation was however viewed by Arawaks as ruthless warriors. Indeed, in the language of the Tainos, Caribs meant cannibal (whether these people were anthropophagic or not is still debatable)! In the late 15th century Caribs from neighboring islands had started to encroach on the eastern tip of `Hispaniola', killing the men and enslaving the women.

    30. Discover Haiti: Intro Page - Discover The Arts, History, Culture Of A Rich And P
    Indepth information about haiti, history, culture, arts, people, news. Learn more than what the media offers. Also activities, chat, message board.

    31. Bob Corbett's Haiti Page
    MAIN haiti PAGE. Art, Music, Dance. Book Reviews. Film. history. Library. Literature

    32. The History Of Haiti - Haitian History
    Overview, from Christopher Columbus to today. Includes images from haitian artists.Category Society history By Region Caribbean haiti......Overview of the history of haiti, from Christopher Columbus to today.MedaliaArt. The history Of haiti. To search amazon
    The History Of Haiti
    To search for the title of your choice, or for a particular subject, enter the key words here: Click here for additional books,
    on any subject at discount prices.
    A tiny tropical island sits in the Caribbean, decorated with palm trees and colorful hibiscus flowers. Its mountains stand majestically looking down upon sandy beaches and green valleys. From afar it appears as any other island one might encounter sailing the turquoise waters of the Caribbean. Yet, as we draw closer we notice a difference. There are no tourist resorts dotting the coasts, no high rise hotels with sand volleyball courts and marimba bands. This is Haiti, this is different. If the land could speak it would tell of tragedy and violence, of abuse and bloodshed, of power and greed. Why does the country stand apart from its neighbors? The answer lies in the turbulent history of this tiny nation.
    The Early Years
    Christopher Columbus landed on the tiny island he called, "La isla espanola" in December 1492 (The name was later shortened to Hispanola). The island was inhabited by local Arawak Indians who referred to their home as "Hayti", or mountainous land. In keeping with imperialistic ideology, the Spaniards used and abused the native Arawaks to the point of near extinction.

    33. Embassy Of Haiti - Key Dates In Haitian History
    Prepared by haiti's Embassy to the US.Category Society history By Region Caribbean haiti......Ambassade d 'Haïti Washington DC Key Dates in haiti's history. 1492. ChristopherColumbus lands and claims the island of Hispaniola for Spain.
    Washington D.C.
    Key Dates in Haiti's History
    Christopher Columbus lands and claims the island of Hispaniola for Spain. The Spanish build the New World's first settlement at La Navidad on Haiti's north coast. Spanish control over the colony ends with the Treaty of Ryswick, which divided the island into French-controlled St. Domingue and Spanish Santo Domingo. For over 100 years the colony of St. Domingue (known as the Pearl of the Antilles) was France's most important overseas territory, which supplied it with sugar, rum, coffee and cotton. At the height of slavery, near the end of the 18th century, some 500,000 people, mainly of western African origin, were enslaved by the French. A slave rebellion is launched by the Jamaican-born Boukman leading to a protracted 13-year war of liberation against St. Domingue's colonists and later, Napoleon's army which was also assisted by Spanish and British forces. The slave armies were commanded by General Toussaint Louverture who was eventually betrayed by the French and subsequently exiled to France where he died. The hemispere's second Republic is declared on January 1, 1804 by General Jean-Jacques Dessalines. Haiti, or

    34. History Of Haiti: The Rule Of Faustin Soulouque
    out against his enemies and the puppet not only ceased being a puppet, but was soonan emperor, Faustin I, and one of the strongest rulers in haiti's history.
    Documents menu
    History of Haiti:
    The rule of Faustin Soulouque (Emperor Faustin 1)
    1 March 1847 to 15 January 1849
    Upon the death of Riche the mulatto elite needed to continue to consolidate their power, and another puppet was called for. It didn't take them long to select their man Faustin Soulouque. There is a famous story (which is probably not true, but it still reflects the attitudes toward Soulouque on the part of historians, since the story is often repeated). The Heinl's tell it well: There runs a story that, during the days of Boyer, when Soulouque, still a lieutenant, was a place equerry, the president had foretold days to come in which 'any man in Haiti could become president, even [indicating Soulouque] that stupid negre over there.' In this tale, Soulouque replies humbly, 'Please, Mr. President, don't make a fool of me.' The Heinls note in a footnote: This apocryphal anecdote, well cemented into the place of received history of Haiti, appears with no source or attribution in the works of Davis, Leyburn, and Rodman, all twienth-centrry foreigners. We have been unable to find it in any contemporary account. (Heinl, 1978, p. 195.)

    35. GlobalEDGE (TM) | Country Insights - Overview Of Haiti
    Includes statistics, history, economy and government.

    36. Haiti: A Brief History
    Timeline of events in the history of this island.Category Society history By Region Caribbean haiti......From these brief facts you will see a history of a truly resilient people, who foughtoff December 5, 1492 Columbus discovers haiti (the island of Hispaniola).
    Take the time to read the following chronology. From these brief facts you will see a history of a truly resilient people, who fought off slavery and survived civil wars, countless massacres and truly oppressive leadership. The Haitians proclaimed themselves the first black republic in the world in 1804, and have remained independent to this day.
    December 5, 1492
    : Columbus discovers Haiti (the island of Hispaniola) : The Spaniards cede the western third of Hispaniola to the French crown at the Treaty of Ryswick. Haiti is now called "Saint Domingue". : Saint Domingue becomes the richest colony in the world. Its capital, Cap Français, is known as the Paris of the New World. It is also a regime of extraordinary cruelty; the 500,000 slaves taken by the French are flogged, starved, and buried alive for minor offenses. August 1791 : the first major black rebellion takes place, initiated by Boukman, a voodoo houngan . This begins the markings of civil war between the black dominated north and the mulatto dominated south. : Toussaint L'Ouverture, an educated herb doctor and military man, emerges as the leader of the former slaves in the north. He restored order, ended the massacres, and restored some of Saint Domingue's former prosperity.

    37. Bob Corbett's Haitian History Page
    haitian history Course haitian history Course This is an entire university courseon haitian history. PreColumbian Period. Early haiti 1804-1843. 1844-1915.

    38. Haiti, History, And The Gods
    Help and Contact. Go. Entire Site. Joan Dayan haiti, history, and the Gods (A CentennialBook) Publication Date January 1996.
    Entire Site Books Journals E-Editions The Press
    Joan Dayan
    Haiti, History, and the Gods
    (A Centennial Book)

    Publication Date: January 1996 Subjects: Literature History Cultural Anthropology Rights: World 362 pages Paperback
    Available Now Description About the Author
    "By viewing Revolutionary-era Haiti through the lenses of gender and sexuality, Joan Dayan breathes life into an important slice of history."Karen McCarthy Brown, author of Mama Lola DESCRIPTION (back to top) In Haiti, History, and the Gods Joan Dayan charts the cultural imagination of Haiti not only by reconstructing the island's history but by highlighting ambiguities and complexities that have been ignored. She investigates the confrontational space in which Haiti is created and recreated in fiction and fact, text and ritual, discourse and practice. Dayan's ambitious project is a research tour de force that gives human dimensions to this eighteenth-century French colony and provides a template for understanding the Haiti of today. In examining the complex social fabric of French Saint-Domingue, which in 1804 became Haiti, Dayan uncovers a silenced, submerged past. Instead of relying on familiar sources to reconstruct Haitian history, she uses a startling diversity of voices that have previously been unheard. Many of the materials recovered hereoverlooked or repressed historical texts, legal documents, religious works, secret memoirs, letters, and literary fictionshave never been translated into English. Others, such as Marie Vieux Chauvet's radical novel of vodou

    39. Haiti - History
    Home. Information. Services. Galleries. haitian history. history click images FeaturedSite history of haiti World history Archive page on haiti haitian Books
    Home Information Services Galleries
    haitian history
    click images:
    Featured Site:
    History of Haiti

    World History Archive page on Haiti
    Haitian Books:
    Info Galleries
    var site="s12haiti"
    Our Culture
    Kreyol Words Archive Naz Poetry Nazaire's Art ... Haiti Web Reviews
    our history...
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    Search Here Webmasters Earn Money Per Click! Most Wanted Keywords Art Painting Poetry Haiti ... Powered By Updated!

    40. World Travel Guide - Haiti - History And Government
    World Travel Guide haiti - history Government - includes informationon the constitution and politics. WORLDTRAVELGUIDE.NET,
    OAS_sitepage = URL + '/Caribbean/Haiti/HistoryandGovernment'; WORLD TRAVEL GUIDE .NET GUIDES World Travel Guide World City Guide World Airport Guide World Cruise Guide ... World Weather TOOLS Holiday Brochures Mini Guide Online Bookstore
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    APPENDICES How to Use This Guide Health Disabled Travellers Buddhism ... Travel Warnings LANGUAGES Deutsch Dutch Español
    ... Haiti
    History and Government
    A succession of military governments followed before Haiti began the transition to civilian rule. Presidential elections were held in mid-December 1990 under the supervision of the United Nations and brought to the presidency the radical priest Jean-Bertrand Aristide. Nine months later, army chief Brigadier-General Raoul Cedras seized power in a military coup. Aristide was exiled. In June 1992, the army installed a civilian government under Marc Bazin, one of the conservative presidential candidates defeated by Aristide. Twelve months later, as the country suffered under the weight of international opprobrium, a deal between the Cedras/Bazin regime and Aristide allowed the latter to come back to the country. Political violence, orchestrated by a right-wing militia known as the
    Famni Lavalas
    Government: Haiti is formally governed according to the terms of the Constitution promulgated in 1987 which allows for an executive president and a bicameral legislature (an 83-member Chamber of Deputies and 27-member Senate). The President is elected by popular vote every five years. The Chamber of Deputies is elected every four years; and the Senate every six years. The Constitution was restored in September 1994 after a three-year interruption following a military coup.

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