SOAS: Centre Of African Studies of the world; development of indigenous African writing SOAS Linguistic descriptionof hausa; comparative (West between Swahilispeaking coastal peoples of East http://www.soas.ac.uk/cas/memblang.html
Contemporary Global Systems their energies to conquering the indigenous peoples rather than Britain had conqueredthose indigenous polities that hausa is dominant in the North, Yoruba in http://twist.lib.uiowa.edu/cgs/resources/Chap5.html
Extractions: Understanding Nigeria Through Geographys Five Themes Nigeria is an African place created by Europeans, like Jordan a place created by politics, largely external politics. It is a fascinating country with a significant resource endowment, a complex mix of ethnic groups, and a precarious hold on the allegiance of its people. With a population exceeding 100 million, it is Africas most populous country. It stretches across an area slightly larger than Texas. Nigeria faces many problems, not the least of which is its very survival. Let us use geographys five themes to try to understand Nigeria, particularly as a player in the contemporary global system. The Place That Becameand isNigeria Before colonialism the area that became Nigeria was a complex region in flux. Even now the country has more than 300 languages (Figure 5.1). Hausa is dominant in the North, Yoruba in the West. Igbo is the most important language in the East. Before colonialism those 300 societies had a range of political systems and economies. An Islamic Jihad, spreading from Sokoto in northwestern Nigeria at the beginning of the Nineteenth Century, spread the authority of an Islamic caliphate south and east until it covered a sizable section of the country. The Sokoto Caliphate was basically a feudal system with Fulani overlords and adoption of Hausa as the language of daily life. In Yorubaland in the southwest and Benin City in the south central part of the country, large kingdoms competed for power. Elsewhere the political structures varied, some with traditional, monarchical rulers, others more republican in form.
French In West Africa them, the Ghana, Mali, Songhai and hausa empires and and the tenacity of the indigenouspopulations prevented Second World War the colonized peoples of French http://www.sas.upenn.edu/African_Studies/K-12/French_16178.html
Extractions: The French in West Africa: Early Contact to Independence Stephen Wooten Department of Anthropology University of Illinois-Urbana-Champaign Early Contacts Direct European contact in West Africa dates back at least as far as the fifteenth century AD when Portuguese traders made their first links with West African coastal peoples. Previously, Europeans has been aware of and had participated to varying degrees with West African peoples through the trans-Saharan trade. Throughout the latter part of the fifteenth century the Spanish, Dutch, British and French all began to establish their presence in the West African context. The timing of these early contacts is linked closely to the growth of maritime capabilities, increasing interest in trade activity with Africa and the Far East, religious expansion and the Age of Exploration. Africa, and West Africa in particular, came to represent important possibilities for the expansionist policies of the European powers over the next five centuries. The early contacts made by Europeans, primarily the Portuguese, in the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries were largely focused on the coastal areas of West Africa and were primarily trade related although missionary work and exploration did also occur. The Europeans traded in slaves, sugar, pepper, ivory, wax, and gold during this period. The trade in gold was a major factor in the expansion of European interest in West Africa. Gold from West Africa, Ghana in particular, represented 1/10th of the world's gold reserve in the early part of the sixteenth century (Boahen, 1986). Europe's growing dependence on gold and the associated growth of merchant capitalism reinforced Europe's links to West Africa.
Untitled africa came to be dominated by foreign peoples. Indian, over 1000 different indigenousgroups (including Bantu Berber, Fulani, Creole, Fula, hausa, Malinke, Issa http://www.osearth.com/resources/sampleNWG/NWG_beta/reports/ssa/hist.html
Extractions: Sub-Saharan Africa was originally inhabited by a group of people who were probably the forefathers of the Pygmies, Bushmen and Hottentots of today. In 30,000 BC, they were pushed to the Northwest and South by another group of people who were taller and larger. Sub-Saharan Africa was home to several great kingdoms before European colonization. The Ghana Empire, which began in the fourth century and reached its height in the tenth century, commanding most of the area between Timbuktu and the Atlantic Ocean. The Mali Empire (also known as the Madingo Empire) was a trading kingdom which controlled most of West Africa as well as the city of Timbuktu and extended into the southern Sahara. Under Mansa Musa, the Mali Empire reached its apogee in the fourteenth century. The Arab traveler Ibn Batuta visited and wrote on the Mali empire in the mid-fourteenth century. Africa came to be dominated by foreign peoples. The Portuguese were the first to explore Sub-Saharan Africa in 1270. By the nineteenth century, Sub-Saharan Africa had been colonized by almost every European nation and was host to a series of battles, conflicts of interest and treaties. The dynamics of this colonial period for the most part determined Africa's borders today. Countries include: Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Reunion, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zaire, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.
RE: The Yoruba Are An Indigenous People Of West Africa RE The Yoruba are an indigenous people of West HebraicEgyptian source of the YorubaPeoples An attempt believable than the story of the hausa merchant and http://home.ican.net/~vreznik/wwwboard/archive1/Yoruba indigenous people of West
Extractions: That many ancient cultures share aspects of culture, is a point I cannot and will not dispute. It does appear that at one time in human existence all peoples on the planet had spiritual lives that were very close in form and content. I can only speculate on why this is. But, I feel safe in saying that wars over religion did not occur at that time in our archaic past, because of this. To fight a man over what he believes was completely considered insane. Perhaps, those make or promote war in the name of religion should be institutionalized and heavily medicated... OOOOPPS, now I'm ranting. . . There are also Islamic editions of this story. The following version was current in the mid 1800's. The main characters in this story are Lamurudu and Oduduwa. The first character, Lamurudu according to the "Bibeli Mimo" , a Yoruba translation of the King James version of the Bible, is Yoruba for Nimrod.
The Mistake Of 1914 In culture and way of life most Middle Belt peoples have more in common with theSouth than with the Even indigenous preIslamic hausa-Fulani culture http://www.nigerdeltacongress.com/marticles/mistake_of_1914.htm
Extractions: The 'mistake' of 1914 by Mallam Bamaguje Katsina State, Nigeria Many Nigerians especially southerners seem to believe that the amalgamation of northern and southern protectorates by the British in 1914 was a colossal mistake. They contend that northern and southern Nigeria are too different to make a workable nation, hence they attribute much of Nigerias problems today to that historic error. As an Nkrumaist Pan Africanist who believes in the unification of black Africa, I find such notion disturbing. Even in pre-colonial Africa, multi-ethnic nations existed. The Benin empire comprised Edos,Urhobos, Yorubas and some Igbo speaking peoples. The influence of the Oyo Empire extended into modern day Ghana. The Sokoto caliphate was multi-ethnic, in fact most of the great African empires Mali, Songhai, Ashanti, Zulu etc were composed of more than one ethnic group. Around the world today multi-ethnic nations are the norm rather than exception. Even Britain our erstwhile colonial master is an amalgam of English, Welsh, Scots, Norrnans, Saxons, Angles, etc. It is therefore likely that even without colonialism multi-ethnic nations would have emerged in Africa today. On closer scrutiny the apparently irreconcilable dichotomy is actually between the core North and the rest of the country. In culture and way of life most Middle Belt peoples have more in common with the South than with the core North. In fact many Middle Belters have strong historic and ethnic affiliation with the South the Kwara/Kogi Yorubas and their south western cousins; Idomas of Benue and Yalas of Cross River; the Igalas had more historical interaction with the Igbos and Edos than their fellow Hausa northerners.
Untitled of South africa, Yoruba and hausa in Nigeria Building on the traditional indigenoussystems These suggestions landscape will stimulate african peoples to divert http://cehd.ewu.edu/faculty/ntodd/GhanaUDLP/NationBuilding_Sundiata.html
Extractions: Nation Building in Modern Africa: Problems and Prospects Dr. John Addai-Sundiata Department of Sociology University of Cape Coast, Ghana email: John Addai-Sundiata Paper presented at Eastern Washington University Cheney, Washington May 1998 Click for Map of Africa Introduction: Africa's Past Africa is a huge continent which occupies 20% of the earth's land surface. Today, there are 52 sovereign nations on the continent, with about 2,00 tribal or ethnic societies, each of which has its own unique language, culture and traditions. some, such as the Xhosa and Zulu of South Africa, Yoruba and Hausa in Nigeria, or Ashanti and Dagomba in Ghana, occupy thousands of square miles, while other tribes are small in numerical strength and territory. The population of Africa in 1987 stood at 600 million (U. S., 244 million) out of which 50% were 15 years old or less. Again, the majority are peasants, and the average literacy rate is ca. 57%, but then, the variations differ from one country to the other. Geographically, Africa is said to be the oldest continent and it bears topographical imprints to that status. It is also acknowledged as the cradle of human civilization, and this is evidenced by Louis Leakey's discoveries in East Africa in 1924 of the fossilized remains of the creative Proconsul, identified by evolutionary scale, which lived some 25 million years ago. Later discoveries of Homo habilis ("skillful man") and Australopitheus Africanus (about 2 million years ago). who, as the forerunners of Homo Sapiens (modern man), lay the foundations of XXXX civilization in the Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania.
Ajepong Syllabus including kinship, family and marriage, indigenous political systems (b) AfroAsiaticSwahili, hausa-Fulani, Cushite in the vocabulary of the peoples of Sub http://cehd.ewu.edu/faculty/ntodd/GhanaUDLP/Adjepong.html
Extractions: Vice Chancellor, University of Cape Coast Course Description: An opportunity to explore the great African continent. The concept "African culture" will be defined and delineated. The major characteristics of African culture will be outlined, including: kinship, family and marriage, indigenous political systems and traditional economic patterns and belief systems. Students will learn how agents of social change such as industrialization, colonial rule, education, urbanization and Christianity have shaped African culture. The status of women in contemporary African society will also be explored. I. INTRODUCTION 1. The myth of the "homogenous" African culture; the reality of cultural pluralism in Africa. Note: Africa has been a dynamic partner in civilization. The earliest civilization (OLDUVAI CIVILIZATION) more than 2000 years ago, has been found near Tanganyika. Africa is the cradle of humanity. (i) Egypt: the art of writing Kush: irrigation technology Axum: astronomy Moroe: geometry and medicine Moroe: the invention of paper Moroe: the pyramids Moroe: the mummification of the dead Ancient Egyptians were black. Egypt was founded by people from the south of Africa. Most names of Pharaoh's were Ethiopian.
Met Timeline | Guinea Coast, 1400-1600 A.D. Islamic visual motifs and later indigenous Akan aesthetics under the leadership ofthe hausa king Mohammad century migration of the Fulani peoples to hausaland http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ht/08/sfg/ht08sfg.htm
Extractions: See also Central Africa Eastern and Southern Africa and Western and Central Sudan The increase in size, centralization, and prosperity of the Owo and Benin kingdoms during this period is partially the result of their participation in trans-Saharan trade routes and trade with the Portuguese . Artistic production responds to refinements in metallurgic technologies and an intensified use of symbolic and ritualistic emblems of kingship. Artists of the Guinea coast are influenced aesthetically through contact with Islamic traders and the Portuguese, who often directly commission the carving of ivory objects. Additionally, the Akan (in what is now Ghana) develop an elaborate system of cast brass gold weights to measure the precious gold dust being traded to North Africa and then to Europe; the design of these gold weights is heavily influenced first by abstract Islamic visual motifs and later indigenous Akan aesthetics. The royal court of Benin is believed to have originated in the thirteenth century. According to Edo oral tradition, the kingdom was governed by the thirty-one "Rulers of the Sky," or Ogiso kings. The Ada ceremonial sword, which in contemporary Benin court ritual remains an important emblem of kingship, is believed to date to this period. Eweka I, who may have been from the neighboring Yoruba dynasty, is the first Benin oba (king), succeeding the Ogiso kings around 1300. Eweka's authority is undermined by conflict with autochthonous chiefs. Oba Ewedo of the kingdom of Benin reorganizes the
La Culture Camerounaise with the introduction of Arab, hausa and West Fortunately for these northern peoples,the Islamic Peuhl to wipe out the traditional or indigenous element http://www.spm.gov.cm/cameroun/culture/cam_culture_a.htm
Extractions: Cultural Cameroon Dance Fables Dishes Music ... Art THE CAMEROON CULTURE The microcosm of Africa's culture Cameroon has rightly been described as the "microcosm" of Africa. On its territory are found cohabiting, mingling and intermingling all the major cultures and traditions of sub-Saharan Africa, namely: A quick overview of Cameroon's cultural landscape sprawling from the Atlantic coast to Lake Chad makes it possible to distinguish and better highlight a number of major cultural spheres, each with its own original and specific features. These include the coastal region, the Bantu forest region, the grassfields and the northern region. The coastal or sawa culture Cameroon's coast stretches over close to 400km from Rio del Rey on the western border with Nigeria to Campo near the border with Gabon and Equatorial Guinea and is inhabited by such peoples as the Dualas, Bakweris, Bakokos and Batangas all of whom belong to the coastal Sawa Culture.
Untitled Document The African Charter on Human and peoples' Rights promotes non between the Tivs whobelieve that they are indigenous and the pastoral hausaFulani who moved http://www.alliancesforafrica.org/news.asp?news=358
African Timelines Part I A chronological outline with weblinks from african Timelines by Central Oregon Community College.Category Society History By Time Period Ancient africa AND CULTURE As africas peoples established themselves Spoken african languagesindigenous to the continent influenced Bantu language) and hausa, each with http://www.cocc.edu/cagatucci/classes/hum211/timelines/htimeline.htm
African Timelines Part III Timeline of african history, 15th through early 19th centuries, from Central Oregon Community College.Category Society History By Region africa Slavery WSU) http//www.wsu.edu8080/~dee/CIVAFRCA/hausa.HTM. Nevertheless africas indigenouspersonality has managed to West africa, in 1839 its peoples and states http://www.cocc.edu/cagatucci/classes/hum211/timelines/htimeline3.htm
Extractions: 1830-the end: http://innercity.org/holt/chron_1830_end.html late 15 th c. Kingdom of Kongo flourished on the Congo River (modern Zaire, now Republic of Congo), a confederation of provinces under the manikongo (the king; "mani" means blacksmith, denoting the early importance and spiritual power of iron working)
Report Of Bassam 2000 Remaining Task, The Role of the indigenous African Church establish churches amongthe unreached peoples of Franco be on the Zerma, Kanuri, hausa, Fulani, Shuwa http://www.ad2000.org/re00605.htm
Extractions: Report of Bassam 2000 Dear AD2-Announce Reader: Greetings from Africa, a continent on the move for God! Praises be to Him! Please pray for God's continued hand and provision on the church and leadership in that region. I would urge those so inclined to send words of encouragement and support to Wayne and the other ministries laboring there throughout that region. Against the backdrop of wars, AIDS, poverty, etc. - the church of Christ is on the move in Africa, a sense I pray you will see and agree as you review this report. May His name be praised! That all may hear! International Director Report of Bassam 2000 - May 8-12, 2000 350 key church and mission leaders from across French speaking Africa came to Grand Bassam, Cote d'Ivoire for Bassam 2000, a follow-up consultation to Dakar '98 focusing on the remaining Unreached Peoples Groups of West and Central Africa. These leaders came from 30 different countries, both African and non-African. They represented a wide array of different cultures and languages, not to mention a variety of church and mission organizations, denominations, and agencies. The following main points represent a brief summary of what took place at what many participants referred to as the most strategic, inspirational and widely representative of any Franco-phone West and Central African consultation that they have ever attended. There were many inspiring reports of what God is doing through partnership efforts as well as in a number of different National Initiatives across West and Central Africa. Challenging plenary sessions were greatly appreciated and included; The Challenge of the Remaining Task, The Role of the Indigenous African Church, Reconciliation, and National Missionary Training and Sending. Each afternoon the following working groups meet for two hours each day: Research, Social Action, Prayer, Radio, Women's Ministry, Translation and Literature, Mission to Muslims, and National Mission training and sending. A special time of focusing on specific strategic unreached people groups was held for each of the following groups: the Tamacheq, the Fulani, the Malinke related peoples, the Wolof, and the UPGs of the Lake Chad Basin.
Africa Draft Hill, P., Rural hausa. C., Introduction in Meillassoux (ed.), The Development ofIndigenous Trade and Mair, L., peoples of africa, chapters 5, 10 (Nuer and http://lucy.ukc.ac.uk/Courses/SE512/Preceeding_Years/se5121999.html
Extractions: AFRICAN SOCIETIES Michaelmas and Lent Terms Telephone extension: 3360 Number Registered for Course : max 40 Email list for Course : firstname.lastname@example.org Assessment Procedure : You will be assessed by a combination of two essays, a bibliography on one of the topics covered and contributions to the course email list. At the end, a three hour examination is held. Essays etc contribute 10% of all marks, the examination 90%. You must make at least four contributions to the email list which include at least two article summaries (but not including essays and the bibliography which should not be sent to the list). Assignment Requirements : Essays need to be of at least 2000 words, not more than 3000 in length and must be typed first essay on 18 December 1998 by 3.00 p.m.
UBS Translation Program In 2001 children in Latin America, indigenous peoples, an audio Bibles were published in AfricaKinyarwanda revised with Psalms Gikuyu (Kenya); hausa (Nigeria); and http://www.biblesociety.org/transrep2001.htm
Extractions: to Translation as Engagement Introduction At its World Assembly in Midrand, South Africa, in October 2000, the global fellowship of the United Bible Societies established directions for its ministry in the new millennium. In part, these were a reaffirmation of goals that had been established at the previous World Assembly in Mississauga, Canada, in 1996; in part, they were new directions that would guide the Fellowship into the future. The Directions from Midrand The goal of inviting people to engage with the Scriptures and the effort to serve all the churches was the hallmark of the UBS translation program in 2001. A task team established through the UBS World Service Center offered this definition of Scripture engagement: Scripture engagement is a concept that emphasises making the Scriptures discoverable, accessible, and relevant, that is: making the Bible recoverable and discoverable as sacred Scripture
History Department At Millersville University between Europeans and the indigenous peoples of the on Portugese missionaries inAfrica, 1417 French, Portuguese, Italian, German, Dutch, Kiswahili, hausa. http://muweb.millersville.edu/~history/faculty/thorntoncv.html
Extractions: Issue No. 458 Published in Cairo by AL-AHRAM established in 1875 Egypt Region International Economy ... Letters By Gamal Nkrumah There is no greater irony in the entire post-Cold War scenario than the failure of strong American world-leadership to restore nerve and vigour to the developing world of the South. Indeed, many countries in the South are now not so much developing as stagnating, or even worse, declining. As they thus revert to pre-colonial conditions, they inevitably come to qualify as ripe for re-colonisation. In his recent broadside, The New Military Humanism, Noam Chomsky lays out for all to see the blatant and shameless hypocrisy of US intervention in trouble spots around the globe. The Americans have taken it upon themselves to be the stout-hearted trouble-shooters of this brave new world. Yet, argues Chomsky, their selectivity is nauseatingly Machiavellian. The thesis is immediately engaging, especially for those of us in the so-called Third World, for its refusal to apply itself to such red herrings as: Is socialism still relevant? Is the capitalist system in crisis? Is internationalism dead? Who cares? Well, we the wronged majority do. Africa observed the 12th annual World AIDS Day on 1 December with a terrible trepidation. The number of HIV-infected individuals on the continent now stands at a horrendous 22.5 million. On 9 July 1999, US Vice President Al Gore announced a new Clinton Administration initiative to address the global AIDS pandemic, specifically in Africa and India. Over 95 per cent of all HIV-infected individuals are in the South.
Extractions: PRESIDENT Olusegun Obasanjo was reported in the media to have stated that he is not opposed to a National Conference provided it is constructive and contributes to national solidarity. Our organisation, the Movement for National Reformation (MNR), reacted by publicly welcoming the president's statement as a positive contribution to the national debate on the expediency of a national conference in favour of which popular public demand has refused to go away or to abate, in spite of all efforts to misinterpret and undermine it. Our discussion this afternoon can be reduced to a simple question: what do we expect a National Conference to produce? Before endeavouring to answer the question, I ask your indulgence to quote at some length from an address, which I gave seven months ago to the Steering Committee of the MNR, because it is at the very heart of our subject today. "This is the challenge which the 21st Century imposes on us and on Nigeria's leaders. And this is the fundamental purpose of the National Conference, which we have urged for many years and which has now caught the imagination of the populace (and, we are delighted to note, the President himself). The cardinal rationale of a national conference, as I see it, would be to enable us come to terms with our diversity and turn it to our collective advantage. I repeat that this is what I would call "constructive diversity".
GUOSA AFRICAN CULTURAL CENTER because there were no elements of homogeneity in the peoples that occupied Languagewas evolved as a medium of common indigenous socially interwoven hausa 48. http://www.dawodu.net/guosa1.htm
Extractions: GUOSA AFRICAN CULTURAL CENTER, The Guosa Language: (A Pan Nigerian and West African Sub-Regional Language) By: Alex G. Igbineweka email@example.com OR firstname.lastname@example.org The Guosa African Cultural Center is a diverse multi-cultural center located temporarily on 647 16th Street, Unit A, Richmond, California 94801. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES The purpose of the Guosa Language African Cultural Center is to acquaint Western Civilization and the Asians world with the Guosa Language. A Pan Nigerian and West African Sub-Regional Language , Guosa is one of the worlds oldest language/cultural groups. Resulting from the ever transforming Nigerian, West African Sub-Regional languages. Guosa is influencing the cultures and nations of West Africa as the sub regional countries rise to meet the challenging socio-political global civilization. The Edo language is one of the States capitals central languages spoken by the Edo people of Edo State in Nigeria. The language dates back to the pre-historic existence of the old Benin Kingdom which swept across the coastal territories of West Africa between the 12 th Century B.C. and 1950s AD